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Ottawa looking at options for a national disaster response agency as wildfires rage

FEMA has coordinated the response to disasters in U.S. for decades

A firefighter with the Department of Natural Resources fights a forest fire.

A firefighter with the Department of Natural Resources fights the Seven Mile Lake forest fire in Maitland Bridge, N.S. near Kejimkujik National Park on Thursday, August 11, 2016. Many of the roads and camping areas in the region are closed to the public as the 370-hectare forest fire continues to burn in western Nova Scotia.

Photo:  (Darren Calabrese/Canadian Press)


The federal government is studying options for creating a new national disaster response agency.

The discussions come as Canada experiences its worst wildfire season in history and after governments once again had to call on the military to step in and help.

With several hundred fires still burning, dozens of them in western and northern Quebec, wildfire smoke is blanketing large swaths of that province and eastern and southern Ontario. Environment Canada has issued special air quality advisories in both provinces.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was asked about creating a national disaster response agency during a news conference Tuesday. He said Canada needs to be able to adapt to increasingly severe weather. 

We continue to discuss and look at new mechanisms and new ways of doing that, he said.

We need to continue to make sure we are doing everything possible to both keep Canadians safe when these extreme weather events hit, but also make sure we're doing everything we can to predict, protect and act ahead of more of these events coming.

Earlier this week, Trudeau said the government is focused on getting through this difficult fire season. He said that discussions absolutely need to be had about how to be better prepared as climate change makes fire seasons like this one more likely.

A senior government source told The Canadian Press that discussions on a new approach are already well underway and include analyzing the merits of creating a Canadian version of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the United States.

FEMA was created in 1979 with the dual responsibilities of emergency management and civil defence. It leads the U.S. government's programs to prepare for, prevent, respond to and recover from natural disasters, terrorist attacks and other major incidents.

According to the Canadian Press's reporting, the discussions include Trudeau and multiple departments and ministers, including Emergency Preparedness Minister Bill Blair, Environment Minister Steven Guilbeault and Natural Resources Minister Jonathan Wilkinson.

A Canadian version of FEMA would not just be for fires but for all disasters, including flooding and major storms such as hurricanes.

Military repeatedly asked to send soldiers

Canada's disaster response plans currently involve different levels of government on a case-by-case basis. They repeatedly turn to the Canadian Armed Forces to deploy soldiers and equipment to help.

When the military responds in Canada, that work falls under Operation Lentus.

CAF documents show that the operation was triggered 21 times between 2018 and 2022, not including 118 requests for help from the military in 2020 to respond to COVID-19.

The military has warned that calling upon it for help in a disaster should be a last-ditch response after all other options are exhausted.

Ottawa skyline under smoky skies.

Smoke from wildfires in Ontario and Quebec shrouds Parliament Hill in Ottawa on Tuesday, June 6, 2023.

Photo:  (Sean Kilpatrick/The Canadian Press)

Chief of the Defence Staff Gen. Wayne Eyre has warned that the high demand on his troops for disaster assistance is straining the military's overall capacity.

More than 500 soldiers and military specialists, along with equipment such as waterbombers and other aircraft, are currently deployed to help fight fires in Alberta, Quebec and Nova Scotia.

There have been more than 2,300 fires in Canada this year to date, burning more than 10 times the average amount of land by this point in the year. More than 120,000 Canadians have been forced from their homes at some point this spring, and thousands remain evacuated today.

The impact of the fires is being felt far and wide, most acutely in the communities directly affected but also hundreds of kilometres away in major cities — and even thousands of kilometres south in the United States.

Ottawa experiencing some of the worst air pollution

Poor air quality is forecast to persist into the weekend across parts of Ontario, as plumes of wildfire smoke blanket the province and prompt school boards to limit outdoor activities.

Ottawa, Belleville and Kingston registered some of the worst air pollution levels in the country, maxing out the air quality index at very high risk. People with lung conditions and other chronic illnesses are being warned to avoid outdoor activity completely, while all others are told to limit outdoor exercise.

In Ottawa, school boards cancelled outdoor recesses and sports leagues cancelled games and practices. The Toronto District School Board also said all strenuous outdoor activities would be rescheduled or moved indoors where possible, while school boards in York Region said they would hold recess inside.

In a bizarre twist of fate, Wednesday is Clean Air Day in Canada, a day when the public is supposed to reflect on the importance of air quality to our health.

Health Minister Jean-Yves Duclos said wearing a mask can help protect against the smoke.

Air quality index levels were forecasted to peak at high risk in many other Ontario cities, from Windsor through to Toronto and north to Sudbury.

Mia Rabson (new window) · The Canadian Press

With files from CBC News